Sleep Apnea Treatment: Non-Invasive Therapy
CPAP No More! Dental Oral Appliance Obstructive Sleep Apnea Therapy that Cures
What is Obstructive Sleep Apnea (“OSA”)?
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder that involves cessation or significant
decrease in airflow while breathing during the sleeping. There are various degrees of
OSA including mild, modrate to severe sleep apnea. Additiona to OSA, there is also a
more dangerous version of sleep apnea known as Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) which is
a nervous system disorder.
Standard Sleep Apnea Treatments Vs. Pneumpedics
Commonly, long term therapy, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
and/or oral appliance therapy, such as mandibular advancement appliances (MAD),
have been utilized as treatment. However, a recent form of treatment, biomimetic oral
appliance therapy (BOAT), offers and alternative non-surgical method, which can
putatively resolve OSA by combined maxilla-mandibular correction, and addressing
craniofacial deficiencies. Multiple studies have determined that BOAT induced
craniofacial and airway changes produce a more favorable result, resulting in an
optimally reshaped upper airway, which results in a reduction in the severity of sleep
disordered breathing, thereby effectively resolving the disorder of sleep apnea.
What is the DNA Sleep Appliance Device?
Typically, dental oral appliances used to manage snoring and obstructive sleep apnea
are mandibular advancement devices that simply protrude the lower jaw. These devices
are worn over a lifetime, and do not address the underlying etiology of the condition. In
contrast, Dr. May advocates that treating the underlying cause of OSA is a superior
approach that improves not just the symptoms of OSA, but resolves the OSA itself. Dr.
May’s FDA approved, superior treatment option is the DNA Appliance know as
mRNA(T) which works through upper airway remodeling or Pneumopedics® to redevelop the airway so that underlying sleep apnea can be resolved in some mild and
The biomimetic technique of the DNA is significantly different from standard dental MAD
because instead of simply repositioning the mandible, the patented, FDA-registered
Daytime-Nighttime Appliance® system (or DNA appliance®), which is worn during the
evening and at night, allows the body to gently increase the size of the upper jaw and
increase the volume of the nasal airway, sometimes to the extent that the underlying
issues are completely eliminated. In addition, the FDA-cleared, patented, mandibular
Repositioning-Nighttime Appliance® (or mRNA appliance®) is a biomimetic oral
appliance that provides combined maxillo-mandibular correction. The mRNA appliance
is worn at night, and this allows the body to reposition the mandible while gently
redeveloping the midface, as well as remodeling the upper airway in adults, while
correcting the positions of the teeth into a more natural position.
Our Obstructive Sleep Apnea Appliances utilize the advanced scientific principles and
technology of Neuromuscular dentistry. This means that Dr. May plans, observes and
measures exactly how the sleep apnea appliance will affect the TMJ joint and the
surrounding muscles of the jaw. As the Connecticut Sleep Apnea expert, he takes
considerable time to ensure that every patients’ appliance is fabricated while the patient
is able to maintain the most relaxed position for their jaw joint and facial muscles. This
muscular relaxation process takes about an hour and a half and is achieved through the
use of TENS therapy (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerural Stimulation). The relaxed and
comfortable position for the patients’ lower jaw is then extensively verified through the
use of computer Electomyography (EMG’s) and Jaw Tracking technology to ensure the
mDNA appliance will be clinically effective and extremely comfortable each and every night of wear.
Why is the expert fitting of the oral sleep appliance critical?
Setting the mRNA Oral Appliance to keep the lower jaw in the most relaxed position will
virtually eliminate any morning jaw or facial soreness that most often occurs with many
other “arbitrarily” made dental sleep appliances. These “arbitrary” starting positions also
promote further torquing of the lower jaw which leads to torquing of the spine’s C1 and
C2 around the brain stem which is also the location of the respiratory center within the
brain. This can lead to a possible Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) condition that takes place
in the central nervous system. Overall, if the prescribed dental appliance is not
comfortable and causes the patient facial, muscle, and TMJ pain, the patient will most
likely not wear it. This results in non-compliance of OSA treatment, leaving OSA
untreated which can lead to a wide array of other serious medical conditions.
Added Benefits for Nighttime CLENCHERS and GRINDERS
For patients who are habitually plagued by clenching, grinding and waking up with sore
TMJ joints and migraines, there are tremendous benefits. By maintaining the jaw’s most
relaxed muscular position, mDNA will virtually eliminate all of these symptoms. This
means, that Dr. May is able to effectively treat not only the OSA itself, but also any
pathological clenching / grinding habits a patient may have, alleviating debilitating TMJ
discomfrot and migraine pain! How great would that be to not clench or grind one’s teeth
anymore at night time, all while effectively treating the obstructive sleep apnea while
getting a mini facelift!
Enhanced aesthetics using Pneumonics(R)
Patients have been extraordinarily increasing interest in facial macro aesthetics and
micro aesthetics, which has significantly increased the use of facial fillers in the lower
face to reduce aging effects, wrinkles and improve upper lip fullness. Indeed, cosmetic
injection around the lips and perioral area is thought to be a way to provide aesthetic
improvement of age changes around the mouth as well as lip augmentation.2
It has also
been suggested that intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is an
effective way of preventing damage to dental hard tissues and restorations by
deprogramming the muscles responsible for the destructive forces.3 But, despite the
invasive nature of these procedures, injection of dermal fillers has also been deployed
for facial soft-tissue augmentation.4 Unfortunately, there have been some adverse
reports on injectable, nonbiodegradable fillers.5 Therefore, noninvasive, natural
methods of craniofacial enhancement are preferred by Dr. Yuriy May. In additional, Dr.
May has observed positive results in clinical changes that are consistent with increased
craniofacial symmetry and volume, consistent with numerous publications documenting
the improve facial aesthetic phenomenon as a substitute to potentially dangerous facial
What is a dental device and how does it work?
There are many FDA approved dental sleep devices. These devices can generally
be divided into the 3 categories listed below:
1) Mandibular Advancement Devices (MAD)
Mandibular advancement devices are by far the most common type of dental sleep device available for the treatment of snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). They are also sometimes called oral appliances, or dental sleep devices. Mandibular
Advancement Devices (MADs) open the airway by moving the mandible (the lower jaw)
forward. The tongue is attached to the lower jaw behind the chin. As the jaw is moved
forward, the collapsible part of your airway is held open by the forward movement of the
tongue and other airway muscles.Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs) also
improve the strength and rigidity of the airway by increasing the muscle activity of the
tongue and other muscles of the airway.
2) Tongue Retaining Devices (TRD)
Like MADs, Tongue Retaining Devices (TRDs) also work by holding the tongue in a
forward position. These devices pull the tongue forward, but instead of moving the jaw
forward like a Mandibular Advancement Device (MAD), TRDs directly control the tongue
itself. In some cases Tongue Retaining Devices (TRDs) have decreased therapeutic
complications compared to MADs, but TRDs can also be less comfortable and generally
take several weeks or months to be worn comfortably.
3) Combination CPAP/Dental Sleep Device Therapy
Often the problems associated with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
therapy are due to high pressures and uncomfortable fit of the nose or face mask. Your
Dental Sleep Solutions® dentist can work directly with your sleep physician to make acombination dental sleep device that is worn in combination with your CPAP. This custom-made dental sleep device or oral appliance will attach directly to your CPAP
machine. When CPAP is combined with jaw advancement from a mandibular
advancement device, the CPAP can often be used at a much lower pressure setting.
Other Invasive and High Risk Therapies
What other treatments for snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) are available?
Treatment options for a patient suffering from sleep apnea include Dental Device
Therapy (learn about dental device therapy here), CPAP, Surgery, Positional Therapy,
and Weight Loss.
CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure)
CPAP was developed in the early 1980’s and was the first viable solution for treating the
CPAP examples for treating obstructive sleep apnea insidious disease of Obstructive
Sleep Apnea (OSA). Most physicians prescribe CPAP as a first treatment option,
though many physicians now utilize dental devices as a first line of therapy for mild to
moderate disease OSA. CPAP treatment consists of a pump that delivers positive air
pressure to a mask that is fitted over the nose and/or the mouth. The air pressure is
adjusted until the airway is forced open, much like blowing up a balloon.
CPAP is a very effective therapy WHEN it is used. If you’ve been diagnosed with sleep
apnea and were prescribed a CPAP by your physician, you know exactly what we mean
when we say WHEN it is used; compliance is the biggest challenge with this therapy.
Most people find that wearing a mask and having air pushed down their throat is a
challenge. The problems patients complain about from CPAP therapy are very real and
often difficult, if not impossible, to overcome.
A partial list of the most common patient complaints from CPAP:
• Mask leaks
• An inability to get the mask to fit properly
• Discomfort or interrupted sleep caused by the presence of the device
• Noise from the device disturbing sleep or bed partner’s sleep
• CPAP restricted movements during sleep
• CPAP does not seem to be effective
• Pressure on the upper lip causes tooth related problems
• Latex allergy
• Claustrophobic associations
• An unconscious need to remove the CPAP apparatus at night
Do you currently use CPAP and have problems?
Here are some tips that may help you sleep more effectively while using CPAP:
Try a different CPAP mask
Masks come in many shapes and sizes. Some go over just your nose; some your nose
and mouth; others simply have a small tube that fits into your nose. Sometimes
switching masks can help you.
• Call the company where you purchased your CPAP
• Work with the DME (Durable Medical Equipment) company where you got your
CPAP. They are experts at helping people adapt to the therapy.
• Consider adding heat / humidification
• The constant air moving through your airway and across your mucous membranes
tends to dry you out; so adding humidification to your CPAP can help. Heat can
also be added and can make a significant difference, especially in Northern
climates and the winter time.
Ask about BiPAP
If your pressure seems to be just too much, you may want to ask your physician if a
BiPAP is a possible solution. BiPAP machines have a sensor in them that adjust the
pressure based on whether you are trying to inhale or exhale. The sensor lowers the
pressure when you are trying to exhale and makes it easier to get air out.
Surgery may also be a treatment option for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The upper
airway goes from your nose and mouth to the middle of your throat. The upper airway is
dynamic and complex. Here is a partial list of surgeries that may be utilized to treat
Surgery examples to treat obstructive sleep apnea:
• Nasal septal surgery
• Turbinate reduction surgery
• Somnoplasty turbinate reduction
• Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP)
• Partial uvulectomy/ Pillar Procedure
• CO2 laser palatoplasty (LAUP)
• Uvulopalatal flap
• Woodson Procedure (transpalatal palatopharyngoplasty)
• Turbinate reduction
• Tongue base reduction – soft palate for snoring
• Tonsillectomy (total/ partial)
• Lingual tonsillectomy
• Tongue base reduction• Epiglottectomy
• Glossectomy (anterior vs. posterior)
• Linguoplasty (CO2)
• Tongue-base suspension sutures (Repose procedure)
• Hyoid suspension and advancement to mandible
• Hyoid myotomy and suspension to thyroid cartilage
• Expansion hyoidplasty
• Geniotubercle/genioglossus skeletal advancement (with multiple variants)
• Jaw advancement (telegnathic) surgery (LeFort I, Bilateral Sagittal split Advancement)
• Osteotomies)- ? Distraction Osteogenesis
• Maxillary transverse expansion
Most surgeries are performed by Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) physicians, though Oral
and Maxillofacial (OMS)surgeons are also generally able to perform surgeries to treat
Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Surgery is appealing to many patients because if it works,
you are usually cured. However, Surgery carries many severe and potentially lifethreatening risks that should be discussed in detail with your physician so that you can
evaluate the risk and reward for this treatment option. Dental devices can often be used
as an initial treatment, and surgery used later if desired.
A resolved patient from the office of Dr. Tara Griffin. Find A Certified Provider
near you! http://pic.twitter.com/OsvzKdRfwR
— Dr Dave Singh (@DNAappliances) February 19, 2016
Clinical Research Supporting the Pneumopedics and DNA/mDNA OSA Treatment Effectiveness: Journal Articles
Cortes M, Wallace-Nadolski ME, Singh G Upper airway remodeling as a treatment for
obstructive sleep apnea in adults with craniofacial deficiencies SLEEP 39 Supplement;
Wallace-Nadolski ME, Cortes M, Singh G Non-surgical upper airway remodeling as a
treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 39 Supplement; A139, 2016
Liao F, Singh GD. Effects of Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy on Epworth Scores in
Adults with Obstructive Sleep ApneaJ Dent Sleep Med. 3(3), 98, 2016. http://www.jdsm.org/ViewArticle.aspx?pid=30718
G. Dave Singh; Tara Griffin; Samuel E Cress Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in
Adults with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Sleep Disorder & Therapy Volume 5 Issue
G. Dave Singh*; Soo-Chang Jung; Ravindra Chandrashekhar Resolution of Pediatric
Chronic Rhinitis using Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy: A Case Report Open J Clin
Med Case Rep: Volume 2 (2016)
G. Dave Singh, Tammarie Heit, Derek Preble, Ravindra Chandrashekhar Changes in
3D nasal cavity volume after biomimetic oral appliance therapy in adults CRANIO: The
Journal of Craniomandibular & Sleep Practic, 2016 34:1
Liao F, Singh GD Resolution of Sleep Bruxism using Biomimetics J Sleep Disord Ther
Singh GD, Cress S. Effects of combined maxillo mandibular or appliance therapy in adults with mild to moderate osa Sleep, Volume 38, Abstract Supplement 2015
Cress S, Singh GD Effects-of-Combined-Maxillo-Mandibular-Oral-Appliance-Therapy-inAdults-with-Severe-OSA Sleep, Volume 38, Abstract Supplement 2015
Griffin T, Singh GD Effects of a Non Mandibular Advancement Device in Adults with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Singh GD, Chapman C and Preble M.Craniofacial Changes after CombinedAtlasOrthogonal and Biomimetic Oral Appliance TherapyA. Vertebral Subluxation Res. 2014; Dec 18: 211-218.
Singh GD, Griffin TM and Chandrashekhar R.Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in Adults with Mild to Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Austin J Sleep Disord. 2014;1(1): 5.
Singh GD, Heit T, Preble D. Changes in 3D Midfacial Parameters after Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in Adults. J Ind Orthod Soc 2014;48(2):104-108.
Chapman C, Singh GD Combined Effect of a Biomimetic Oral Appliance and Atlas Orthogonist Cervical Adjustment on Leg Lengths in AdultsA. Vertebral Subluxation Res. 2013; Aug 15: 46-50.
Singh GD, Harris W. Resolution of a ‘Gummy Smile’ and Anterior Open Bite Using the DNA appliance®.J Am Orthod Soc. 2013; 13(4): 30-34.
Singh GD, Callister JD Effect of a Maxillary Appliance in an Adult with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Case Report. Cranio. 2013 July; 31(3):171-179.
Singh GD, Ataii P. Combined DNA appliance™ and Invisalign™ therapy without interproximal reduction: A Preliminary Case Series J Clin Case Rep 2013; (3:5): 1-3.
Singh GD, Cress S. Case Presentation: Effect of combined full mouth rehabilitation and oral appliance therapy on obstructive sleep apnea. Dialogue: AADSM. 2013; (2): 18-20.
Singh GD, Utama J. Effect of the DNA appliance™ on migraine headache: case report Int J Orthod Milwaukee. 2013 Spring; 24(1):45-49.
Singh GD, Cress S, McGuire M, Chandrashekhar R. Case Presentation: Effect of Mandibular Tori Removal on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Parameters Dialogue: AADSM. 2012; (1): 22-24.
Singh GD, Wendling S, Chandrashekhar R Midfacial development in adult obstructive sleep apnea. Dent Today. 2011; 30(7): 124-127.
Williams DE; Lynch JE, Vidhi Doshi, Singh GD, Hargens A. Bruxism and Temporal Bone Hypermobility In Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Cranio. 2011 July; 29(3):1-9.
Cress S.Beyond Braces, Botox and FillersAe Dent. 2011 Fall; 12-16.
Singh GD Epigenetic orthodontics: Developmental Mechanisms of Functional(Formational) Orthodontic Appliances Am Orthod Soc. 2010; 10(6): 16-26.
Singh GD , Malisano L. Epigenetic orthodontics. Med Link. 2010; 69: 13/p>
Celenk M, Farrell ML, Eren H, Kumar K, Singh GD, Lozanoff S. Upper airway detection and visualization from cone beam image slices. J X-Ray Sci Technol. 2010; 18(2): 121-135.
Mitani Y, Banabilh SM, Singh GD. Craniofacial changes in patients with Class III
malocclusion treated with the RAMPA system. Int J Ortho. 2010 Summer; 21(2): 19-25.
Singh GD, Lipka G. Case Report: Introducing the Wireframe DNA appliance™. J Am Acad Gnathol Ortho. 2009 26(4); 8-11
Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Mohamad H, Dinsuhaimi S, Samsudin AR, Singh GD Assessment of 3-D nasal airway morphology in Southeast Asian adults with obstructive sleep apnea using acoustic rhinometry Clin Oral Investig. 2009 Sep 30.
Singh GD.Ostensibly erroneous. Brit Dent J. 2009; 207(2): 52-53.
Singh GD, Maher GH, Padilla RR. Customized mandibular orthotics in the prevention of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury in football players: A preliminary study. Dent Trauma. 2009; 25(5): 515-521.
Singh GD. When is a fissure not a fissure? Cranio. 2009; 27(1): 6-7
Singh GD, Keropian B, Pillar G. Effects of the full breath solution appliance for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: A preliminary study J Craniomandibular Pract. 2009; 27(2), 109-117
Banabilh SM Suzina AH, Dinsuhaimi S, Samsudin AR, Singh GD. Dental arch morphology in South East Asian adults with obstructive sleep apnea: Geometric morphometrics J Oral Rehabil. 2009; 36(3), 184-192.
Singh GD, Abramson M. Response to comments on Effect of an intra-oral nasal dilation
appliance on 3-D nasal airway morphology in adults. Sleep Breath. 2008 12(2): 183-4.
Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Dinsuhaimi S, Singh GD. Craniofacial obesity in patients with
obstructive sleep apnea Sleep Breath. 2008; 13(1), 19-24.
Singh GD, Abramson M. Effect of an intra-oral nasal dilation appliance on 3-D nasal
airway morphology in adults. Sleep Breath. 2008; 12(1): 69-75.
Singh GD. Digital diagnostics: Three-dimensional modeling. Brit J Oral Max Surg. 2008;
Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Dinsuhaimi S, Singh GD. Cranial base and airway
morphology in adult Malays with obstructive sleep apnea. Aust Orthod J. 2007; 23: 89-
Singh GD, Levy-Bercowski D, Yañez MA, Santiago PE Three-dimensional facial
morphology following surgical repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate in patients after
nasoalveolar molding. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2007; 10(3): 161-6.
Singh GD, Olmos S Use of a sibilant phoneme registration protocol to prevent upper
airway collapse in patients with TMD Sleep Breath. 2007; 11(4): 209-216.
Singh GD, García AV, Hang WM. Evaluation of the posterior airway space following
Biobloc therapy: Geometric morphometrics. Cranio. 2007; 25(2): 84-89.
Singh GD.Outdated definition. Brit Dent J. 2007; 203(4): 174.
Singh GD.Spatial matrix hypothesis. Brit. Dent. J. 2007; 202(5): 238-239.
Banabilh SM, Rajion ZA, Samsudin AR, Singh GD. Facial soft tissue features assessed
with finite element analysis. Int J Orthod. 2006; 17(4): 17-20.
Banabilh SM, Rajion ZA, Samsudin AR, Singh GD. Dental arch shape and size in Malay
schoolchildren with Class II malocclusion. Aust Orthod J. 2006; 22: 99-103.
Lopez Del Valle LM, Singh GD, Feliciano N, Machuca M Del C. Associations between a
history of breast feeding, malocclusion and parafunctional habits in Puerto Rican
children.PR Health Sci J. 2006; 25(1): 31-34.
Singh GD, Maldonado L, Thind BS. Changes in the soft tissue facial profile following
orthodontic extractions: a geometric morphometric study. Funct Orthod. 2004 Winter –
2005 Spring; 22(1): 34-8.
Singh GD, Diaz J, Busquets-Vaello C, Belfor TR.. Facial changes following treatment
with a removable orthodontic appliance in adults. Funct Orthod. 2004 Jul-Sep; 21(3): 18-
Belfor TR, Singh GD. Developing dental arch symmetry using the Homeoblock device Int
J Orthod Milwaukee. 2004 Fall; 15(3): 27-30.
Singh GD, Rivera-Robles J, de Jesus-Vinas JM. Longitudinal craniofacial growth
patterns in patients with orofacial clefts: geometric morphometrics. Cleft Palate Crano J.
2004 Mar; 41(2): 136-43..
Singh GD, Kutcipal E, McNamara JA. Deformations of the midfacial complex in twins
with orofacial clefts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2003 Jul; 40(4): 403-408.
Singh GD, Clark WJ Soft tissue changes in patients with Class II, Division 1
malocclusions treated using Twin Block appliances: finite-element scaling
analysis. European Journal of Orthodontics. 2003; (25): 225-230.
Singh GD, Thind BS. Effects of the headgear-activator Teuscher appliance in the
treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion: a geometric morphometric study. Cleft
Palate Crano J. 2004 Mar; 41(2): 136-43..
Agrait EM, Levy D, Gil M, Singh GD. Repositioning an inverted maxillary central incisor
using a combination of replantation and orthodontic movement: a clinical case
reportPediatr Dent. 2003 Mar-Apr; 25(2): 157-60. .
Singh GD. Morphospatial analysis of soft-tissue profile in patients with Class II Division 1
malocclusion treated using twin block appliances: geometric morphometrics. Orthod
Crainofac Res. 2002 Feb; 5(1): 38-50.
Cerajewska TL, Singh GD. Changes in soft tissue facial profile of craniofacial
microsomia patients: geometric morphometrics Int J Adult Orthod Orthagnath Surg.
2001; 16(1): 61-71.
Sjamsudin J, David D, Singh GD. An Indonesian child with orofacial duplication and
neurocristopathy anomalies: case report. J Crainomaxillofac Surg. 2001 Aug; 29(4):
Singh GD, Clark WJ.. Localisation of mandibular changes in patients with class II
division 1 malocclusions treated with twin-block appliances: finite element scaling
analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001 April; 119(4): 419-25./p>
Hay AD, Ayoub AF, Moos KF, Singh GD. Euclidean distance matrix analysis of surgical
changes in prepubertal craniofacial microsomia patients treated with an inverted L
osteotomy Cleft Palate Crainofac J. 2000 Sep; 37(5): 497-502./p>
Hay AD, Singh GD. Mandibular transformations in prepubertal patients following
treatment for craniofacial microsomia: thin-plate spline analysis Clin Anat. 2000; 13(5):
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S Midfacial morphology of Koreans with class III
malocclusions investigated with finite-element scaling analysis. J Crainofac Genet Dev
Biol. 2000 Jan-Mar; 20(1): 10-8.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S. Comparison of mandibular morphology in
Korean and European-American children with Class III malocclusions using finiteelement morphometry. J Orthod. 2000 Jun; 27(2): 135-42.
Singh GD, Hay AD. Morphometry of the mandible in prepubertal craniofacial microsomia
patients following an inverted L osteotomy Int J Adult Orthodon Orthgnath Surg. 1999;
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S. Allometry of the cranial base in prepubertal
Korean subjects with class III malocclusions: finite element morphometry. Arch Oral Bio.
1999 May; 44(5): 429-39.
Singh GD. Morphologic determinants in the etiology of class III malocclusions: a
review. Clin Anat. 1999; 12(5): 382-405.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S. Soft tissue thin-plate spline analysis of prepubertal Korean and European- Americans with untreated Angle’s Class III
malocclusions. J Crainofac Genet Dev Biol. 1999 Apr-Jun; 19(2): 94-101.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S Finite-element morphometry of soft tissues in
prepubertal Korean and European-Americans with Class III malocclusions. Arch Oral
Biol. 1999 May; 44(5): 429-36.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S Finite-element morphometry of soft tissue
morphology in subjects with untreated Class III malocclusions. Angle Orthod. 1999 Jun;
Mossey P, Singh GD, Smith ME. More extensive analysis is needed when assessing
facial structure in SIDS. BMJ. 1999 Feb 6; 318(7180): 396-7.
CSingh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S Components of soft tissue deformations in
subjects with untreated angle’s Class III malocclusions: thin-plate spline analysis. J
Crainofac Genet Dev Biol. 1998 Oct-Dec; 18(4): 227-40
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S Craniofacial heterogeneity of prepubertal
Korean and European-American subjects with Class III malocclusions: procrustes,
EDMA, and cephalometric analyses. Int J Adult Orthod Orthognath Surg. 1998; 13(3):
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S Mandibular morphology in subjects with Class
III malocclusions: Finite-element morphometry. Angle Orthod. 1998 Oct; 68(5): 409-18.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S Procrustes, Euclidean and cephalometric
analyses of the morphology of the mandible in human Class III malocclusions. Arch Oral
Bio. 1998 Jul; 43(7):535-43.
Saunders NC, Birchall MA, Armstrong SJ, Killingback N, Singh GD. Morphometry of
paranasal sinus anatomy in chronic rhinosinusitis: a pilot study. Arch Otolaryngol Head
Neck Surg. 1998 Jun; 124(6): 656-8.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S Morphometry of the midfacial complex in
subjects with class III malocclusions: Procrustes, Euclidean, and cephalometric
analyses. Clin Anat. 1998; 11(3): 162-70.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S. Finite element morphometry of the midfacial
complex in subjects with Angle’s Class III malocclusions. J Crainofac Genet Dev Biol.
1997 Jul-Sep; 17(3): 112-20.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S.Thin-plate spline analysis of the cranial base in
subjects with Class III malocclusion Eur J Orthod. 1997 Aug; 19(4): 341-53.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S. Spline analysis of the mandible in human
subjects with class III malocclusion. Arch Oral Biol. 1997 May; 42(5): 345-53.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S. Morphometry of the cranial base in subjects
with Class III malocclusion J Dent Res. 1997 Feb; 76(2): 694-703.
Singh GD, McNamara JA Jr, Lozanoff S. Localisation of deformations of the midfacial
complex in subjects with class III malocclusions employing thin-plate spline analysisJ
Anat. 1997 Nov; 191(pt 4) 595-602.